What mystifies many parents is where and
why the reading process breaks down.
Although, problems may occur in any area,
decoding, comprehension, or retention,
the root of most reading problems, in the
view of many experts, is decoding.
Decoding is the ability
to apply your knowledge of
letter-sound relationships, including knowledge of
letter patterns, to correctly pronounce
words. Understanding these relationships gives
children the ability to recognize familiar words
and to figure out words they haven't
seen before. (ReadingRockets.org).
Learning disabled children who have problems
ENCODING have difficulty putting their ideas
into messages they can deliver and that can be
understood by other people. This may mean that
a child has a good idea floating around in his/her
he/she can't put the ideas into a
written story that makes a lot of sense.
85% of children diagnosed with learning
difficulties have a primary problem with reading
and related language skills.
b. Reading difficulties
are neurodevelopmental in nature.
c. Neurodevelopmental problems don't go away, but
they do not mean that
a student (or an adult) cannot
earn or progress in school and life.
Most children with reading difficulties can be taught
reading strategies for success in school.
e. When children's reading problems are identified early,
they are more likely to learn strategies that will raise
their reading to grade level.
Decoding is the process by which a word is broken
into individual phonemes
and recognized based on
those phonemes. For instance, proficient decoders
separate the sounds "buh,"
"aah," and "guh" in
the word "bag." Someone who has difficulty
decoding, and thus
difficulty reading easily,
may not hear and differentiate these phonemes.
"Buh," "aah," and
"guh" might be meaningless to
them in relation to the word "bag" on the page.
no one explanation for this
phenomenon. In some cases, it may reflect
that some people simply require more time
separate sounds -- time that isn't there.
Signs of decoding difficulties
* trouble sounding out words
and recognizing words out Try it yourself. Experience a decoding difficulty. Click on the hand!
* confusion between
letters and the sounds they represent
* slow oral reading rate (reading word-by-word)
* reading without expression
punctuation while reading
relies on mastery of decoding;
children who struggle to decode find it
difficult to understand and remember
what has been read. Because their efforts
to grasp individual words are so exhausting,
they have no resources
left for understanding.
Signs of Comprehension Difficulties
* confusion about the meaning of words and sentences
* inability to connect ideas in a passage
* omission of, or glossing over detail
* difficulty distinguishing
significant information from
* lack of concentration during reading
Retention requires both decoding and comprehending
what is written.
This task relies on high level
cognitive skills, including memory and the ability to
group and retrieve related
ideas. As students progress
through grade levels, they are expected to retain
more and more of what they read.
From third grade
on, reading to learn is central to classroom work.
By high school it is an essential task.
Information from the www.pbs.org website.
Misunderstood Minds! Visit this link for more information!
What signs are associated
poor recognition of the written word
* very slow oral reading
many mistakes in oral reading
* very poor comprehension of what has been read
Students who suffer from this kind of learning
disorder frequently have:
* social problems
increased dropout rate at school
Reading disorders may also be associated
* conduct disorder
* attention deficit disorder
* other learning
A reading disorder is usually brought to
of the child’s parents in
kindergarten or first grade when reading
instruction becomes a very important
of the classroom teaching.
How is a reading disorder diagnosed?
The person with normal intelligence demonstrates
poor reading skills and no other neurological,
or hearing problems. Some children with very high
intelligence may not have a reading disorder
until later in elementary school.
Because standardized group testing is not accurate
enough to diagnose this disorder,
it is very
important that the individual be given special
psychoeducational tests to determine if a learning
disorder is present. Special attention must be given
to the child’s ethnic and cultural background by
How is a reading disorder treated?
The treatment for reading disorders mainly
involves putting the student into
with an emphasis on remedial or corrective
reading instruction. Usually the extra help
is supplied to the student through
reading resource classrooms in school, small
class size, or individual tutoring.
What parents can do to help at home?
1. Help your child learn the letters
and sounds of the alphabet.
point to letters and ask
your child to name them.
3. Help your child make connections between
what he/she might see on a sign or in the
newspaper and the letter and sound work
he or she is doing in school.
4. Encourage your child to write and spell notes,
e-mails, and letters
using what he knows
about sounds and letters.
5. Talk with your child about the "irregular"
words that she'll often see in what she's
reading. These are the words that don't
follow the usual letter-sound rules
Ex. are, the, was, said. Called 'sight words.'
6. Consider using computer software that focuses
on developing phonics and emergent literacy skills.
What teachers can do to help at school!
a. Have students sort pictures and objects by the
sound you're teaching.
b. At each stage, have children say the letter
sound over and
c. Teach phonics in a systematic and explicit way.
If your curriculum materials
are not systematic
and explicit, talk with your principal or
d. Be sure to begin the systematic and explicit
phonics instruction early; K -first grade
would be best.
e. Help students understand the purpose of phonics by
engaging them in
reading and writing activities that
requires them to apply the phonics information you've
f. Use manipulatives to help teach letter-sound
relationships. These can
include counters, sound
boxes, and magnetic letters.
g. Provide more of your instruction
to students who
you've divided into need-based groups.
Agregaremos nuevos artículos a esta
sección a medida que
elaboremos y obtengamos material nuevo sobre adolescentes.
Nuestro sitio web hermanado,
Colorín Colorado, tiene
muchísima información útil para padres y educadores de
Escritura basada en los estándares para estudiantes ELL
By Colorín Colorado (2008)
Escribir es comunicación, creatividad y colaboración.
Escribir es un proceso social para los estudiantes ELL,
igual que para cualquier otro escritor. Para los estudiantes
que están aprendiendo inglés lograr el equilibrio entre
escribir bien y respetar los estándares
depende de la
calidad del proceso de enseñanza, la práctica y el entorno
de la clase para aprender.
Consejos para Padres de Adolescentes con
Dificultades para Escribir
By Colorín Colorado (2008)
Al graduarse de la escuela
preparatoria, se espera
que los estudiantes estadounidenses hayan aprendido
a escribir de manera eficaz para una
propósitos, desde la redacción de cartas y cuentos
hasta ensayos e informes de investigación.
a muchos estudiantes de la escuela media y la preparatoria
no les gusta escribir, y los estudiantes
aprendiendo inglés como segunda lengua pueden tener especial
dificultad para la escritura.
En este artículo veremos algunos
de los motivos por los que los estudiantes más grandes buscan
la escritura, así como algunas sugerencias para que
usted pueda ayudar a su hijo adolescente a convertirse en
un mejor escritor.
Info gathered from www.adlit.org.